Hyperalgesia, anxiety, and decreased hypoxic neuroprotection in mice lacking the adenosine A1 receptor
Johansson B, Halldner L, Dunwiddie TV, Masino SA, Poelchen W,
Gimenez-Llort L, Escorihuela RM, Fernandez-Teruel A,
Wiesenfeld-Hallin Z, Xu XJ, Hardemark A, Betsholtz C, Herlenius E, Fredholm BB.
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology,
Karolinska Institutet, S-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2001 Jul 31;98(16):9407-12
ABSTRACTCaffeine is believed to act by blocking adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptors (A(1)R, A(2A)R), indicating that some A(1) receptors are tonically activated. We generated mice with a targeted disruption of the second coding exon of the A(1)R (A(1)R(-/-)). These animals bred and gained weight normally and had a normal heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature. In most behavioral tests they were similar to A(1)R(+/+) mice, but A(1)R(-/-) mice showed signs of increased anxiety. Electrophysiological recordings from hippocampal slices revealed that both adenosine-mediated inhibition and theophylline-mediated augmentation of excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission were abolished in A(1)R(-/-) mice. In A(1)R(+/-) mice the potency of adenosine was halved, as was the number of A(1)R. In A(1)R(-/-) mice, the analgesic effect of intrathecal adenosine was lost, and thermal hyperalgesia was observed, but the analgesic effect of morphine was intact. The decrease in neuronal activity upon hypoxia was reduced both in hippocampal slices and in brainstem, and functional recovery after hypoxia was attenuated. Thus A(1)Rs do not play an essential role during development, and although they significantly influence synaptic activity, they play a nonessential role in normal physiology. However, under pathophysiological conditions, including noxious stimulation and oxygen deficiency, they are important.Coffee
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